State-of-the-art Engineering Equipment

FM-119 | Basic Hydrological Apparatus

  • A unit designed to obtain catchment rainfall and runoff values as functions of time.
  • Wheeled Unit for easy mobility.
  • Overhead square pattern spray nozzles supplying water via a flow control valve, flow meter and solenoid valve.
  • Close water circuit.
  • Provide display of the hydrograph Tank Dimensions: 2 m long, 1 m wide and 0.20 m deep.
  • Lifting system to regulate the tilt.
  • 200 L Storage tanks with filter and drainage valve.
  • Sediment measurement system.
  • 8 Adjustable (Height and width) spray nozzles with ball valves for simulating variety of rainfall patterns for even distribution across the tanks.
  • Shower nozzles adjustable in height and length with multiple flows to simulate storms and local inputs.
  • Required Services, Assembly and installation, Interface and Control.
  • L x W x H: 2400 x 1080 x 2050 mm Approx.
  • Weight: 450 kg Approx.
Technical Specification
This apparatus can be used to study seepage and groundwater flows after precipitation, sediment transport in courses of rivers in presence of flow obstacles. Variable precipitation density and areas and different groundwater supply and drain possibilities allow a wide variety of experiments. The equipment contains a closed water circuit with storage tank and pump. Stainless steel tank with adjustable inclination provides the space for performing the experiment. A precipitation device equipped with a timer is provided to define the times of precipitation. It consists of two groups of four nozzles. Water can flow in (groundwater) or out (drainage) via two chambers on the side. The experiment tank is separated from the chambers by fine mesh screens. To study the lowering of groundwater, two wells with open seam tubes are available. By means of a small weir in the supply and drain, a course of a river can be generated. Water supply and water drain can be opened and closed, thus allowing a wide variety of experimental conditions. In addition, three different models make it possible to study the flow around obstacles and the resulting sediment transport in the river bed. 19 tube manometers are installed at the bottom of the tank to detect groundwater level. Two flow meters with different measuring ranges indicate the supply to the experiment tank. A measuring tank at the drain contains a measuring weir for determining the water level and a force sensor for determining the amount of sediment. The measured values are indicated at the apparatus. At the same time, the measured values can also be transmitted directly to a PC through and optional data acquisition software.
Learning Objectives
  • Effect of rainfall of varying duration on the discharge.
  • Effects of wells on the groundwater level over time.
  • Determination of the compactness index.
  • Determination of the drainage density. 
  • Obtaining of the pressure profiles.
  • Determination of the water obtained
  • Study of groundwater catchment. 
  • Study of the cone of depression of a well.
  • Study of the interaction of cones of depression by two adjoining wells..
  • Investigating transient processes, i.e. effect of rainfall of varying duration on the discharge storage capacity of a soil and storage capacity of a soil.
  • Investigating steady processes seepage flow and effects of wells on the groundwater level over time.
  • Study flow behaviour of rivers, obstacles in the river bed, sediment transport in rivers.
  • Catchment area: Stainless steel tank 2 m x 1 m.
  • Normal depth of permeable medium 180 mm.
  • Spray nozzles: Eight, in two banks of four, with
  • Adjustable spray direction.
  • Reservoir tank: Capacity approx 220 liters.
  • Recommended medium: Washed sand graded 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm.