State-of-the-art Engineering Equipment

Energy Losses in Pipes Apparatus

  • Investigation of pressure losses in piping elements and shut-off devices
  • Different measuring objects for determining flow rate according to the differential pressure method
  • Six pipe sections capable of being individually shut off, with different piping elements: sudden contraction, sudden enlargement, Y-pieces, T-pieces, corners, and bends
  • One pipe section to hold interchangeable shut-off/measuring objects
  • Measuring objects made of transparent material: Venturi nozzle, orifice plate flow meter, and measuring nozzle
  • Shut-off devices: angle seat valve, gate valve
  • Annular chambers allow measurement of pressure without interaction
  • 2 twin tube manometers for measuring the pressure difference
  • Flow rate determined by base module
  • Water supply using base module or via laboratory supply
  • Length: 1550mm
  • Width: 640mm
  • Height: 1300mm
Technical Specification
Pressure losses occur during the flow of real fluids due to friction and turbulence (vortices). Pressure losses occur in pipes, pipeline elements, fittings and measuring devices (e.g. flow meters, speedometers). These pressure losses must be taken into account when designing piping systems. To study the pressure losses in pipes, piping elements and shut-off devices. In addition, the differential pressure method is presented for measuring the flow rate. The experimental unit contains six different pipe sections capable of being shut off individually. The pipe sections are equipped with piping elements such as bends, elbows and branches. In one pipe section, different shut-off devices and measuring objects are installed to determine the flow rate. The measuring objects are made of transparent material and provide excellent insight into the inner structure. The pressure measuring points in the piping system are designed as annular chambers. This creates a largely interference-free pressure measurement. The experiments measure the pressure losses in pipes and piping elements, such as branches and bends. The opening characteristic of the shut-off devices are also recorded. The pressures are measured with twin tube manometers. The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.
Learning Objectives
  • Pressure losses in pipes, piping elements and fittings
  • How the flow velocity affects the pressure loss
  • Determining resistance coefficients
  • Opening characteristics of angle seat valve and gate valve
  • Familiarisation with various measuring objects for determining flow rate:
  • Venturi nozzle
  • orifice plate flow meter and measuring nozzle
Pipe section to hold fittings or measuring objects
  • 20x1,5mm, PVC
Pipe sections Inner diameter: d
  • straight: d=20x1,5mm, length: 800mm, PVC
  • sudden contraction: d=32x1,8-20x1,5mm, PVC
  • sudden enlargement: d=20x1,5-32x1,8mm, PVC
  • with 2x Y-piece 45° and 2x T-piece
  • with 2x 90° elbow/bend: d=20x1,5mm, PVCand 2x 45° elbow: d=20x1,5mm, PVC
  • 2x twin tube manometers: 0…1000mmWC
Measuring ranges
  • pressure: 0…0,1bar